RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
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Intra-articular corticosteroid injection in diabetic patients with adhesive capsulitis: a randomized controlled trial.

PURPOSE: An intra-articular corticosteroid injection is considered an effective treatment for idiopathic adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. This study examined the efficacy of corticosteroid injections for the treatment for adhesive capsulitis in patients with diabetes mellitus.

METHODS: Forty-five diabetic patients were randomized into a corticosteroid injection group or non-injection control group and received the same instruction for a home stretching exercise. The corticosteroid group patients were administered intra-articular corticosteroid injection composed of 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide. Pain by a visual analogue scale, shoulder range of motion, and functional state by the American Shoulder and Elbow score were assessed at the baseline, 4-, 12-, and 24-week follow-up.

RESULTS: Diabetic patients treated with corticosteroid injections showed significant improvement in the pain score at 4 weeks and in the functional score at 12 weeks (P = 0.020 and P = 0.042, respectively). The range of motion in forward elevation and internal rotation was significantly higher in the corticosteroid group than in the non-corticosteroid group at the 12-week follow-up (P = 0.030 and 0.045, respectively), but there were no significant differences at the final follow-up between the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid groups.

CONCLUSIONS: A corticosteroid injection in diabetic patients decreases the pain perception and accelerates the functional recovery in the early post-injection period. An intra-articular corticosteroid injection is considered a viable option for the treatment for adhesive capsulitis with diabetes.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Randomized clinical trial, therapeutic study, Level II.

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