Short- and long-term outcomes of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/stenting of renal fibromuscular dysplasia over a ten-year period

Albeir Y Mousa, John E Campbell, Patrick A Stone, Mike Broce, Mark C Bates, Ali F AbuRahma
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2012, 55 (2): 421-7

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate short and long-term outcomes of percutaneous transluminal intervention in patients with symptomatic renal artery stenosis due to fibromuscular dysplasia (RAFMD) and/or the combination of RAFMD with aorto-ostial atherosclerotic disease.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients with renal artery RAFMD who underwent transcatheter therapy between January 1999 and December 2009 was performed. Blood pressure (BP) measurement, number of BP medications, and hypertension defined by a systolic BP >140 ± diastolic BP >90 were recorded. Renal function was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Restenosis was defined by stenosis >60% and was determined by renal artery duplex and/or angiography. Freedom from event (restenosis, renal failure, or recurrent hypertension) was performed using life table analysis.

RESULTS: Forty-three procedures were performed on 35 patients with RAFMD. Thirty-two patients (91%) were women, with mean age of 61.9 years old. Technical success was 100% with adjunctive stent placement required in the FMD segment for dissection in 1 patient (2.3%) and in the non-FMD aorto-ostial atherosclerotic lesion in 4 patients (9.3%). Short-term outcomes: the majority (69%) had an immediate clinical benefit for hypertension, 6% were cured without BP medications, and 63% improved with less than or equal to preoperative BP medications. Postintervention, 17% remained at moderately reduced renal function (<60), whereas the percent above >60 mL/minute eGFR increased significantly (from 51% to 69%; P = .002). For the entire cohort, renal function (mean eGFR) significantly increased from 71.9 mL/minute + 5.8 to 80.8 mL/minute + 5.2 (P = .007). Long-term outcomes: freedom from recurrent or worsening hypertension (>140 systolic blood pressure [SBP] and >90 diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) was (93%, 75%, and 41%) and freedom from reduced renal function (eGFR <30 mL/minute) was (100%, 95%, and 64%) at 1, 5, and 8 years, respectively. Patients with reduced baseline renal function (<60 mL/minute) and combined atherosclerotic disease were more likely to experience long-term reduced renal function (eGFR <30 mL/minute; P = .003). Primary and assisted primary patency was (95%, 71%, and 50%) and (100%, 100%, and 100%) at 1, 5, and 9 years, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Renal angioplasty is a safe and durable modality for treating RAFMD with favorable short and long-term clinical outcomes. Patients with combined atherosclerotic disease and FMD were older and were more likely to have declining renal function over time. Early intervention may be imperative to achieve possible cure of hypertension.

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