JOURNAL ARTICLE

End-tidal CO2 as a predictor of survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Marc Eckstein, Lorien Hatch, Jennifer Malleck, Christian McClung, Sean O Henderson
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2011, 26 (3): 148-50
22107764

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate initial end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) as a predictor of survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all adult, non-traumatic, out-of-hospital, cardiac arrests during 2006 and 2007 in Los Angeles, California. The primary outcome variable was attaining return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the field. All demographic information was reviewed and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables of the cardiac arrest were significantly associated with ROSC.

RESULTS: There were 3,121 cardiac arrests included in the study, of which 1,689 (54.4%) were witnessed, and 516 (16.9%) were primary ventricular fibrillation (VF). The mean initial EtCO2 was 18.7 (95%CI = 18.2-19.3) for all patients. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 695 patients (22.4%) for which the mean initial EtCO2 was 27.6 (95%CI = 26.3-29.0). For patients who failed to achieve ROSC, the mean EtCO2 was 16.0 (95%CI = 15.5-16.5). The following variables were significantly associated with achieving ROSC: witnessed arrest (OR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.07-2.12); initial EtCO2 >10 (OR = 4.79; 95%CI = 3.10-4.42); and EtCO2 dropping <25% during the resuscitation (OR = 2.82; 95%CI = 2.01-3.97).The combination of male gender, lack of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, unwitnessed collapse, non-vfib arrest, initial EtCO2 ≤10 and EtCO2 falling > 25% was 97% predictive of failure to achieve ROSC.

CONCLUSIONS: An initial EtCO2 >10 and the absence of a falling EtCO2 >25% from baseline were significantly associated with achieving ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. These additional variables should be incorporated in termination of resuscitation algorithms in the prehospital setting.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
22107764
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"