Microwave-assisted facile synthesis of palladium nanoparticles in HEPES solution and their size-dependent catalytic activities to Suzuki reaction

Wei Zhang, Qiao Wang, Fan Qin, Huamin Zhou, Zhong Lu, Rong Chen
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2011, 11 (9): 7794-801
Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized via a rapid and facile microwave route in HEPES (2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid) buffer solution. The shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles could be obtained by one-step method without dependence of seed-mediated growth. The capping agent plays a key role in the formation of Pd NPs with different shape and size, which could be tuned by varying capping agents such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium citrate (Na3(cit)) and potassium bromide (KBr). The size-dependent catalytic activities of the obtained Pd NPs for Suzuki coupling reaction were also investigated. It demonstrated that the catalytic activity of Pd NPs was enhanced regularly with the decrease of particle size. Pd NPs less than 10 nm exhibited better catalytic activities for Suzuki reaction than the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Pd/MWCNTs and Pd/SBA-15 nanocomposites were also prepared by a facile method and afforded good catalytic activity and reusability. This "green" synthetic protocol could be used as a general method for the rapid synthesis of transition metal nanoparticles.

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