Predictive value of ridge dimensions on autologous bone graft resorption in staged maxillary sinus augmentation surgery using Cone-Beam CT

R J Klijn, J J J P van den Beucken, E M Bronkhorst, S J Berge, G J Meijer, J A Jansen
Clinical Oral Implants Research 2012, 23 (4): 409-15

INTRODUCTION: No studies are available that provide predictive parameters regarding the expected amount of resorption after maxillary sinus augmentation surgery using autologous bone grafts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine parameters influencing the outcome of the bone graft resorption process.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 20 patients, three-dimensional analysis of alveolar ridge dimensions and bone graft volume change in the atrophic posterior maxilla was performed by Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography imaging. Ridge dimensions were assessed before maxillary sinus augmentation surgery. Bone graft volumes were compared after maxillary sinus floor augmentation surgery and a graft healing interval of several months. To analyze the relation between bone volume changes with the independent variables, patients' gender, age, alveolar crest height and width, and graft healing time interval, a multi-level extension of linear regression was applied.

RESULTS: A residual bone height of 6.0 mm (SD = 3.6 mm) and 6.2 mm (SD = 3.6 mm) was found at the left and right sides, respectively. Moreover, alveolar bone widths of 6.5 mm (SD = 2.2 mm) and 7.0 mm (SD = 2.3 mm) at the premolars, and 8.8 mm (SD = 2.2 mm) and 8.9 mm (SD = 2.5 mm) at the molars regions were found at the left and right site, respectively. Bone graft volume decreased by 25.0% (SD = 21.0%) after 4.7 months (SD = 2.7, median = 4.0 months) of healing time. The variables "age" (P = 0.009) and mean alveolar crest "bone height" (P = 0.043), showed a significant influence on bone graft resorption. A decrease of 1.0% (SE = 0.3%) of bone graft resorption was found for each year the patient grew older, and an increase in bone graft resorption of 1.8% (SE = 0.8%) was found for each mm of original bone height before sinus floor augmentation.

CONCLUSIONS: Graft resorption occurs when using autologous bone grafts for maxillary sinus augmentation. Alveolar crest bone height and patient age have a significant effect on graft resorption, with increased resorption for higher alveolar crest bone height and decreased resorption for older patients. Consequently, patient characteristics that affect the process of bone graft resorption should be given full consideration, when performing sinus augmentation surgery.

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