Higher rates of bone loss in postmenopausal HIV-infected women: a longitudinal study

Michael T Yin, Chiyuan A Zhang, Donald J McMahon, David C Ferris, Dinaz Irani, Ivelisse Colon, Serge Cremers, Elizabeth Shane
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012, 97 (2): 554-62

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy on change in bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal minority women.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We report a longitudinal analysis of change in BMD with a median duration of 15.4 (interquartile range 13.1, 20.7) months in a prospective cohort study of 128 (73 HIV+, 55 HIV-) postmenopausal Hispanic and African-American women.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annualized change in BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and correlation with baseline markers of bone turnover and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured.

RESULTS: HIV+ women were younger (56 ± 1 vs. 59 ± 1 yr, P < 0.05) and had lower body mass index (BMI; 28 ± 1 vs. 31 ± 1 kg/m(2), P < 0.01). The majority of HIV+ women were on established antiretroviral therapy for more than 3 yr. At baseline, BMD, adjusted for age, race, and BMI, was lower in HIV+ women at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip, and radius and serum C-telopeptide was higher. Annualized rates of bone loss adjusted for baseline BMD were higher in HIV+ women by 2.4-fold at the LS (-1.2 ± 0.3% vs. -0.5 ± 0.3%, P = 0.0009), 3.7-fold at the one third radius (-1.1 ± 0.2% vs. -0.3 ± 0.2, P = 0.006) and 1.7-fold at the ultradistal radius (-1.2 ± 0.2% vs. -0.7 ± 0.2%, P = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, HIV+ status predicted bone loss at the LS, total hip, and ultradistal radius. Among HIV+ women, lower BMI, higher markers of bone turnover levels, and tenofovir were associated with more bone loss.

CONCLUSION: HIV+ postmenopausal minority women had lower BMD, increased bone turnover, and higher rates of bone loss than HIV- women. These features may place these women at increased risk for fracture as they age.

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