Durable remission with salvage second autotransplants in patients with multiple myeloma

Nina Shah, Fraz Ahmed, Qaiser Bashir, Sofia Qureshi, Yvonne Dinh, Gabriela Rondon, Sijin Wen, Peter Thall, Hassan Khan, Sergio Giralt, Richard Champlin, Muzaffar H Qazilbash
Cancer 2012 July 15, 118 (14): 3549-55

BACKGROUND: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (auto-HCT) has been shown to improve survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. However, the role of salvage auto-HCT for relapsed patients, particularly in the era of novel therapeutics, is not well defined.

METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all 44 myeloma patients (24 men, 20 women) who received a second auto-HCT as salvage between January 3, 1992 and November 4, 2008 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

RESULTS: Median interval between the first and salvage auto-HCT was 30 months (range, 2-78 months). Median age at salvage HCT was 54 years (range, 38-73 years), and median number of salvage treatment regimens was 2 (range, 0-5). Eleven (25%) patients had high-risk chromosomal abnormalities on conventional cytogenetic studies between diagnosis and salvage auto-HCT. Ten patients (23%) experienced grade 3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity after the salvage auto-HCT. One patient died within 100 days, for a treatment-related mortality of 2%. Best responses after salvage chemotherapy + salvage auto-HCT were as follows: complete response (CR) + near CR, 11%; partial response, 79%; overall response rate, 90%. Eighteen (41%) patients received post auto-HCT maintenance therapy. Median follow-up from salvage HCT was 41 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from time of salvage auto-HCT were 12.3 and 31.7 months, respectively. Median OS from the time of diagnosis was 75 months. In a fitted Bayesian multivariate model, shorter time to progression after first auto-HCT, greater number of prior therapies, African American race, and immunoglobulin G subtype were significantly associated with worse OS.

CONCLUSIONS: In selected myeloma patients, a second auto-HCT for salvage therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity. The overall response rate and PFS are comparable to other salvage regimens.


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