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Risk of gastroparesis in subjects with type 1 and 2 diabetes in the general population.

OBJECTIVES: In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and upper gastrointestinal symptoms, a diagnosis of diabetic gastroparesis is often considered, but population-based data on the epidemiology of diabetic gastroparesis are lacking. We aimed to estimate the frequency of and risk factors for gastroparesis among community subjects with DM.

METHODS: In this population-based, historical cohort study, the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was used to identify 227 Olmsted County, MN residents with type 1 DM in 1995, a random sample of 360 residents with type 2 DM, and an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 639 nondiabetic residents. Using defined diagnostic criteria, we estimated the subsequent risk of developing gastroparesis in each group through 2006. The risk in DM, compared with frequency-matched community controls, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards modeling.

RESULTS: The cumulative proportions developing gastroparesis over a 10-year time period were 5.2% in type 1 DM, 1.0% in type 2 DM, and 0.2% in controls. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for gastroparesis (relative to controls) was 33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.0, 274) in type 1 DM and 7.5 (95% CI: 0.8, 68) in type 2 DM. The risk of gastroparesis in type 1 DM was significantly greater than in type 2 DM (HR: 4.4 (1.1, 17)). Heartburn (HR: 6.6 (1.7, 25)) at baseline was associated with diabetic gastroparesis in type 1 DM.

CONCLUSIONS: Gastroparesis is relatively uncommon in patients with DM, although an increased risk for gastroparesis was observed in type 1 DM.

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