Preoperative inpatient hospitalization and risk of perioperative infection following elective vascular procedures

Dorian J deFreitas, Karthikeshwar Kasirajan, Joseph J Ricotta, Ravi K Veeraswamy, Matthew A Corriere
Annals of Vascular Surgery 2012, 26 (1): 46-54

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections are not uncommon after elective vascular surgery and can negatively impact mortality rates and hospital resource utilization. Identification of modifiable risk factors for perioperative infection is critical for efforts aimed toward reducing their incidence. We evaluated the associations between preoperative inpatient hospitalization and perioperative surgical site infection (SSI), pneumonia, and urinary tract infection (UTI) following elective vascular surgery procedures.

METHODS: Vascular procedures were identified from the 2005 to 2008 American College of Surgeons National Safety Quality Improvement Participant User Data File by using primary Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. Perioperative infections were evaluated as outcomes based on three categories: SSI, pneumonia, and UTI. Patients admitted ≥1 day before operation were considered inpatients before surgery. Associations between preoperative inpatient hospitalization and perioperative SSI, pneumonia, and UTI were evaluated using the Cochran-Armitage trend test and multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: In total 40,669 elective vascular procedures were identified, of which 7,514 (18.5%) were preoperative inpatients. Patients with preoperative inpatient hospitalization had a greater frequency of age >80 years and dependent functional status and also had higher rates of several comorbid conditions, including congestive heart failure, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, >10% weight loss over the past 6 months, history of bleeding disorder, and current smoker within 1 year, than patients admitted on the same day of their procedure. The overall rates of SSI, pneumonia, and UTI were 3.2%, 1.9%, and 1.4%, respectively. Patients with preoperative inpatient hospitalization had higher 30-day incidence of SSI (4.5 vs. 2.9%), pneumonia (3.1 vs. 1.6%), and UTI (2.3 vs. 1.2%). In multivariable models including preoperative risk factors, preoperative inpatient hospitalization was associated with increased 30-day risk of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.39; p = 0.0066), pneumonia (OR, 1.64; 95% CI: 1.39-1.94; p < 0.0001), and UTI (OR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.20-1.77; p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Preoperative inpatient hospitalization is associated with higher rates of perioperative SSI, pneumonia, and UTI in patients undergoing elective vascular surgery procedures. Avoidance of unnecessary preoperative hospitalization has potential to reduce rates of perioperative infection, but additional research is needed to develop evidence-based management strategies when hospitalization before elective procedures is necessary.

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