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Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate activity probes for the labeling and proteomic characterization of protein binding partners

Meng M Rowland, Heidi E Bostic, Denghuang Gong, Anna E Speers, Nathan Lucas, Wonhwa Cho, Benjamin F Cravatt, Michael D Best
Biochemistry 2011 December 27, 50 (51): 11143-61
Phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids, such as phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P₃], regulate critical biological processes, many of which are aberrant in disease. These lipids often act as site-specific ligands in interactions that enforce membrane association of protein binding partners. Herein, we describe the development of bifunctional activity probes corresponding to the headgroup of PI(3,4,5)P₃ that are effective for identifying and characterizing protein binding partners from complex samples, namely cancer cell extracts. These probes contain both a photoaffinity tag for covalent labeling of target proteins and a secondary handle for subsequent detection or manipulation of labeled proteins. Probes bearing different secondary tags were exploited, either by direct attachment of a fluorescent dye for optical detection or by using an alkyne that can be derivatized after protein labeling via click chemistry. First, we describe the design and modular synthetic strategy used to generate multiple probes with different reporter tags of use for characterizing probe-labeled proteins. Next, we report initial labeling studies using purified protein, the PH domain of Akt, in which probes were found to label this target, as judged by in-gel detection. Furthermore, protein labeling was abrogated by controls including competition with an unlabeled PI(3,4,5)P₃ headgroup analogue as well as through protein denaturation, indicating specific labeling. In addition, probes featuring linkers of different lengths between the PI(3,4,5)P₃ headgroup and photoaffinity tag led to variations in protein labeling, indicating that a shorter linker was more effective in this case. Finally, proteomic labeling studies were performed using cell extracts; labeled proteins were observed by in-gel detection and characterized using postlabeling with biotin, affinity chromatography, and identification via tandem mass spectrometry. These studies yielded a total of 265 proteins, including both known and novel candidate PI(3,4,5)P₃-binding proteins.


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