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In vivo comparison of CXA-101 (FR264205) with and without tazobactam versus piperacillin-tazobactam using human simulated exposures against phenotypically diverse gram-negative organisms

Catharine C Bulik, Pamela R Tessier, Rebecca A Keel, Christina A Sutherland, David P Nicolau
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2012, 56 (1): 544-9
22064538
CXA-101 is a novel antipseudomonal cephalosporin with enhanced activity against Gram-negative organisms displaying various resistance mechanisms. This study evaluates the efficacy of exposures approximating human percent free time above the MIC (%fT > MIC) of CXA-101 with or without tazobactam and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) against target Gram-negative organisms, including those expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Sixteen clinical Gram-negative isolates (6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates [piperacillin-tazobactam MIC range, 8 to 64 μg/ml], 4 Escherichia coli isolates (2 ESBL and 2 non-ESBL expressing), and 4 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (3 ESBL and 1 non-ESBL expressing) were used in an immunocompetent murine thigh infection model. After infection, groups of mice were administered doses of CXA-101 with or without tazobactam (2:1) designed to approximate the %fT > MIC observed in humans given 1 g of CXA-101 with or without tazobactam every 8 h as a 1-h infusion. As a comparison, groups of mice were administered piperacillin-tazobactam doses designed to approximate the %fT > MIC observed in humans given 4.5 g piperacillin-tazobactam every 6 h as a 30-min infusion. Predicted piperacillin-tazobactam %fT > MIC exposures of greater than 40% resulted in static to >1 log decreases in CFU in non-ESBL-expressing organisms with MICs of ≤32 μg/ml after 24 h of therapy. Predicted CXA-101 with or without tazobactam %fT > MIC exposures of ≥37.5% resulted in 1- to 3-log-unit decreases in CFU in non-ESBL-expressing organisms, with MICs of ≤16 μg/ml after 24 h of therapy. With regard to the ESBL-expressing organisms, the inhibitor combinations showed enhanced CFU decreases versus CXA-101 alone. Due to enhanced in vitro potency and resultant increased in vivo exposure, CXA-101 produced statistically significant reductions in CFU in 9 isolates compared with piperacillin-tazobactam. The addition of tazobactam to CXA-101 produced significant reductions in CFU for 7 isolates compared with piperacillin-tazobactam. Overall, human simulated exposures of CXA-101 with or without tazobactam demonstrated improved efficacy versus piperacillin-tazobactam.

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