Heart failure is associated with reduced patency after endovascular intervention for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease

Andrew J Meltzer, Gautam Shrikhande, Katherine A Gallagher, Francesco A Aiello, Sikandar Kahn, Peter Connolly, James F McKinsey
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2012, 55 (2): 353-62

OBJECTIVE: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a highly prevalent comorbidity among patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The effect of CHF on the procedural success of endovascular treatment, however, remains unknown. Theoretically, poor inflow secondary to systolic dysfunction and peripheral vascular alterations may predispose endovascular interventions to failure.

METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to identify CHF patients undergoing endovascular peripheral arterial intervention from 2004 to 2009. Demographics, comorbidities, procedural details, and outcomes were analyzed. Patients underwent duplex ultrasound imaging and clinical follow-up at scheduled intervals. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk factors for loss of primary patency, secondary patency, and limb salvage.

RESULTS: Of 1220 patients undergoing intervention, 271 (22%) with documented congestive heart failure (CHF) underwent an intervention for claudication (22.5%) or critical limb ischemia (77.5%). Primary patency at 1 year was 51.9% ± 2.5% among those with CHF vs 64.6% ± 1.3% in those without CHF (P < .001); this disparity continued throughout follow-up (P < .001). Patients with CHF also had reduced secondary patency throughout follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed CHF was an independent predictor of reduced primary patency (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.4; P = .038) and secondary patency (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; P < .001). In the setting of CHF, 1-year patency was 56.6% ± 4.1% if the ejection fraction (EF) was >40% (n = 147) vs 43.2% ± 3.5% if the EF was <40% (n = 124; P < .001). Secondary patency was also significantly reduced in patients with EF <40% throughout follow-up compared with patients without CHF (n = 949) as well as those with CHF and EF >40% (P < .001). CHF with EF <40% was an independent predictor of reduced primary patency (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; P < .01) and secondary patency (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3; P < .001). Limb salvage was also worse in patients with EF <40% (P = .038).

CONCLUSIONS: CHF is associated with reduced patency after peripheral endovascular intervention and is an independent risk factor for patency loss. Specifically, CHF and reduced EF (<40%) is a strong independent risk factor for patency loss.

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