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JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

The impact of chronic endometritis on reproductive outcome

Jenneke C Kasius, Human M Fatemi, Claire Bourgain, Daisy M D S Sie-Go, René J C Eijkemans, Bart C Fauser, Paul Devroey, Frank J M Broekmans
Fertility and Sterility 2011, 96 (6): 1451-6
22019126

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of chronic endometritis and the impact on the fertility of asymptomatic patients indicated for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.

DESIGN: In the context of a randomized controlled trial, a hysteroscopy-guided endometrial biopsy was obtained and histologically examined. The live birth rate (including spontaneous pregnancies) after initiation of IVF/ICSI treatment of patients diagnosed with chronic endometritis was compared with the live birth rate of a randomly selected matched control group of patients without endometritis.

SETTING: Two tertiary infertility care units.

PATIENT(S): A total of 678 asymptomatic infertile women with a normal transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) who underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy before a first IVF/ICSI treatment cycle.

INTERVENTION(S): Hysteroscopy guided endometrial biopsy.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The prevalence of chronic endometritis and the live birth rate (including spontaneous pregnancies) within 3 years after initiation of the randomized controlled trial.

RESULT(S): The prevalence of chronic endometritis in the 606 patients with an adequate biopsy was 2.8%. The cumulative live birth rate (including spontaneous pregnancies) did not significantly differ between patients with or without endometritis: 76% versus 54%. Also, the clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was not significantly different (hazard ratio 1.456, 95% confidence interval 0.770-2.750).

CONCLUSION(S): Chronic endometritis can be rarely diagnosed in a population of asymptomatic infertile patients with a normal TVS before a first IVF/ICSI treatment. Moreover, the reproductive outcome after initiation of IVF/ICSI was not found to be negatively affected by chronic endometritis. In conclusion, the clinical implication of chronic endometritis seems minimal.

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