Single-operator, single-session EUS-guided anterograde cholangiopancreatography in failed ERCP or inaccessible papilla

Janak N Shah, Fernando Marson, Frank Weilert, Yasser M Bhat, Thai Nguyen-Tang, Richard E Shaw, Kenneth F Binmoeller
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2012, 75 (1): 56-64

BACKGROUND: ERCP may be challenging or may fail in certain situations, including postsurgical anatomy, periampullary diverticula, ampullary tumor invasion, and high-grade strictures.

OBJECTIVE: To report a large experience with EUS-guided anterograde cholangiopancreatography (EACP) to facilitate ductal access or perform direct EUS-guided therapy in patients with postsurgical anatomy or failed ERCP.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Tertiary referral center.

PATIENTS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with failed ERCP or inaccessible papilla over a 4-year period.

INTERVENTIONS: EACP techniques involved ductal puncture and ductography, followed by either guidewire advancement for rendezvous ERCP in patients with duodenoscope accessible papilla or direct drainage in altered anatomy. For failures, crossover to the alternate EACP technique was performed when appropriate.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Technical success rates and complications.

RESULTS: EACP procedures were attempted in 95 of 2566 ERCP procedures (3.7%). EUS-guided cholangiography (n = 70) and pancreatography (n = 25) were successful in 97% and 100%, respectively. EUS-guided rendezvous ERCP was successful in 75% of biliary procedures and in 56% of pancreatic procedures. Direct EUS-guided therapy was successful in 86% and 75% of biliary and pancreatic procedures, respectively. Direct interventions included pancreaticogastrostomy (n = 10), anterograde stent across stricture (n = 10), hepaticogastrostomy (n = 8), and choledochoduodenostomy (n = 1). Ten complications (10.5%) related to EACP or subsequent rendezvous ERCP included pancreatitis (n = 5), hematoma (n = 1), bile leak (n = 1), bacteremia (n = 1), pneumoperitoneum (n = 1), and perforation (n = 1).

LIMITATIONS: Single-center experience; retrospective study.

CONCLUSIONS: EACP complements ERCP and allows successful pancreaticobiliary therapy in a large proportion of patients with failed ERCP or difficult-to-access papilla.

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