Lousicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis leaf aqueous extract against Pediculus humanus capitis and Bovicola ovis

Sampath Marimuthu, Abdul Abdul Rahuman, Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar, Chidambaram Jayaseelan, Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi, Asokan Bagavan, Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Gandhi Elango, Abdul Abduz Zahir, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Kanayairam Velayutham
Parasitology Research 2012, 111 (5): 2023-33
In the present work, we describe inexpensive, nontoxic, unreported and simple procedure for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. The aim of the present study was to assess the lousicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), and sheep body louse, Bovicola ovis Schrank (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity and impregnated method was used with slight modifications to improve practicality and efficiency of tested materials of synthesized Ag NPs against B. ovis. The synthesized Ag NPs characterized with the UV showing peak at 426 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the silver with lattice constants. XRD analysis showed intense peaks at 2θ values of 38.34°, 44.59°, 65.04°, and 77.77° corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) Bragg's reflection based on the fcc structure of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,422.13, 2,924.12, 2,851.76, 1,631.41, 1,381.60, 1,087.11, and 789.55 cm(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed mean size of 59.52 nm and aggregates of spherical shape Ag NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring percent mortality effects of synthesized Ag NPs were 26, 61, 84, and 100 at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The average percent mortality for synthesized Ag NPs was 33, 84, 91, and 100 at 10, 15, 20, and 35 min, respectively against B. ovis. The maximum activity was observed in the aqueous leaf extract of L. inermis, 1 mM AgNO(3) solution, and synthesized Ag NPs against P. humanus capitis with LC(50) values of 18.26, 7.77, and 1.33 mg l(-1) and r (2) values of 0.863, 0.900, and 0.803 and against B. ovis showed with LC(50) values of 21.19, 8.49, and 1.41 mg l(-1) and r (2) values of 0.920, 0.938 and 0.870, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized Ag NPs possess excellent anti-lousicidal activity.

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