[Total hip arthroplasty with shortening subtrochanteric osteotomy and custom-made prosthesis in Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia]

M Starker, F Bischof, T Lindenfeld
Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie 2011, 149 (5): 518-25

AIM: Total hip arthroplasty in patients with a Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia is a technically demanding procedure with a higher complication rate compared to a standard total hip replacement. Specific anatomic features and the necessity of a femoral shortening osteotomy are the reasons for more complications. In this retrospective study we intended to find out whether the use of a custom-made stem based on a CT scan will lead to a better outcome including a lower complication rate. MATERIAL UND METHOD: From 2003 to 2010 we implanted a cementless CTX® individual stem in combination with a subtrochanteric Z-shaped shortening osteotomy in 25 patients with a high hip dislocation, four of them were men (one bilateral) and 16 women (four bilateral). Mean age of the patients was 44.6 years. In all cases the cup was implanted at the level of the anatomic hip centre. Patients were followed with a clinical and radiographic assessment. The morphology of the femur was analysed by CT scans.

RESULTS: The average amount of femoral shortening was 3.4 cm (max. 4.2/min. 2.6 cm). Lengthening of the leg was achieved with an average of 3.8 cm (max. 4.4/min. 3.2 cm). The remaining leg length discrepancy was 0.8 cm (max. 1.2/min. 0.4 cm). In none of the cases did an intraoperative fracture of the femur occur, either in the proximal or in the distal part of the femur. Enlargement of the intramedullary canal was not necessary in any case. The planned depth of the prosthesis could be achieved in all patients. We did not observe any problems with wound healing in our patients. The average Harris hip score was 90 (83 up to 100). Additional cerclage wires are not necessary with this technique when the osteotomy is well adapted. After complete healing the osteotomy can just be noticed by a certain hypertrophy of the cortical bone. In our cases we had a complication rate of 16 %, significantly lower in comparison to literature values.

CONCLUSIONS: Total hip arthroplasty in type IV developmental dysplasia with a custom-made stem based on a CT scan is a procedure that respects the special anatomic features preoperatively und is able to correct the deformity with the individually manufactured prosthesis. High femoral anteversion is corrected at the level of the neck of the stem. There is no necessity for a derotation at the level of the osteotomy. The osteotomy is stabilised by the Z-shape and through a perfect intramedullary fit of the stem. The anatomic shape of the subtrochanteric region is perfectly suitable to perform a femoral shortening.

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