[Intrauterine transfusión in alloimmunization Rh in México 1987-2008]

Luis Javier Ramírez-Robles, Guillermo Gómez-Partida, Guillermo Guevara-Rubio, Leonora Velázquez-Gómez
Ginecología y Obstetricia de México 2010, 78 (9): 469-77

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis, care and prevention of hemolytic disease in fetuses and newborns is the most prominent historical example of a successful medical procedure aimed to abate perinatal morbidity and mortality caused by a disease which for centuries was described only unknown origin.

OBJECTIVE: To review the perinatal outcome with intrauterine transfusion (IUT) in severe alloimmunization RhD over 21 years in a referral center of Mexico. The overall survival rate of fetuses and the relations with gestational age, and presence or absence of hydrops was analyzed. The authors present data about alloimmunization and a historical synopsis about IUT in México.

MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted from January 1, 1987, to January 31, 2008. It was collected only RhD immunizations. Primary outcome variables included gestational age and presence or absence of hydrops, type and number of IUT in each case, and we studied fetal and neonatal morbidity.

RESULTS: A total of 531 IUTs were performed in 150 fetuses. Severe hydrops was found at start of intrauterine treatment in 67 cases (45%). The survival rate was closely related to absence or presence of hydrops (88 and 60%), respectively. There were 123 liveborn fetuses and the procedure-related fetal loss rate was low (1.9%).

CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed good outcome with IUT for fetal anemia and the loss rate was low and similar to another publications. The hydrops was the principal factor in the survival rate because late detection and referral of fetuses is critical for fetal and neonatal outcome.

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