Early diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma of native kidney in kidney transplantation

T García Álvarez, A Mazuecos Blanca, N Navas García, L Calle García, E Vallejos Roca, A Moreno Salazar, J Soto Villalba, R Collantes Mateos, M Rivero Sánchez
Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia 2011, 31 (5): 567-72

BACKGROUND: The frecuency of malignancies in renal transplant (RT) patients is increasing. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of native kidneys is one of the most frequent and its outcome can be more aggressive than in general population.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and prognosis of RCC in renal transplant patients followed in our transplantation unit.

METHODS: Between January 1997 and December 2009, 683 patients underwent kidney transplant at our hospital. Ultrasonography of the native kidneys was annually performed in all renal transplant patients. When suspect solid masses were found at ultrasonography, patients underwent computed tomography. If the suspicion was confirmed, nephrectomy was performed.

RESULTS: 14 radical nephrectomies were performed in 12 patients due to suspect CCR. In 11 nephrectomies (corresponding to 9 patients), anatomopathologic diagnosis was CCR (incidence 1.5%). Histologic stage was T1N0M0 in all cases. In the other 3 RT, the diagnosis was complicated renal cyst. Those patients without carcinoma had polycystic kidney disease. The time on dialysis before CCR diagnosis was 36.7 ± 24.3 months and the interval between RT and diagnosis was 39 ± 25.8 months. After a mean follow-up of 58.6 ± 38.6 months, the outcome of all cases has been excellent, without tumor recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS: Annual renal ultrasonography plays a key role in the early diagnosis of CRR. The early treatment of this pathology is associated with an excellent prognosis in RT patients.

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