Evaluation Studies
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Selective microcoil embolization of arterial gastrointestinal bleeding in the acute situation: outcome, complications, and factors affecting treatment success.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate microcoil embolization in the interventional treatment of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients (29 men, 15 women) with active arterial gastrointestinal bleeding were treated with microcoil embolization. The analysis included technical/clinical success, morbidity, mortality, and intervention-related mortality. Age, sex, underlying malignant disease, number of embolizations, preinterventional and postinterventional hemoglobin levels, blood products administered peri-interventionally, amount of embolization material used, duration of fluoroscopy, and use of contrast medium were evaluated for possible effects on technical and clinical success.

RESULTS: The primary technical success rate of microcoil embolization for acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 88.6% with a clinical success rate of 56.8%. Minor and major complications occurred in 13.6 and 18.2% of patients, respectively. Intervention-associated mortality, due to intestinal ischemia, accounted for 4.6% of the total 18.2% mortality rate. Patients with technically successful embolization had a statistically significant increase in hemoglobin (P<0.01) after the intervention and a decrease in need for packed red blood cells, (P<0.01), fresh frozen plasma (P<0.01), and coagulation products (P<0.01). A smaller postinterventional fresh frozen plasma requirement was associated with a better clinical outcome (P=0.02).

CONCLUSION: Microcoil embolization of arterial gastrointestinal bleeding in the acute situation has a high-technical success rate. The number of transfusions required before and after the intervention has no significant effect on technical success. Postinterventional fresh frozen plasma demand negatively correlates with clinical success.

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