JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Alcoholic liver disease: pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets

Bin Gao, Ramon Bataller
Gastroenterology 2011, 141 (5): 1572-85
21920463
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and can lead to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latest surveillance report published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism showed that liver cirrhosis was the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, with a total of 29,925 deaths in 2007, 48% of which were alcohol related. The spectrum of ALD includes simple steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and superimposed hepatocellular carcinoma. Early work on the pathogenesis of the disease focused on ethanol metabolism-associated oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, abnormal methionine metabolism, malnutrition, and production of endotoxins that activate Kupffer cells. We review findings from recent studies that have characterized specific intracellular signaling pathways, transcriptional factors, aspects of innate immunity, chemokines, epigenetic features, microRNAs, and stem cells that are associated with ALD, improving our understanding of its pathogenesis. Despite this progress, no targeted therapies are available. The cornerstone of treatment for alcoholic hepatitis remains as it was 40 years ago: abstinence, nutritional support, and corticosteroids. There is an urgent need to develop new pathophysiology-oriented therapies. Recent translational studies of human samples and animal models have identified promising therapeutic targets.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
21920463
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"