Effects of genetic susceptibility for type 2 diabetes on the evolution of glucose homeostasis traits before and after diabetes diagnosis: data from the D.E.S.I.R. Study

Alain Gautier, Ronan Roussel, Céline Lange, Xavier Piguel, Stéphane Cauchi, Sylviane Vol, Philippe Froguel, Beverley Balkau, Fabrice Bonnet
Diabetes 2011, 60 (10): 2654-63

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of genetic susceptibility on evolution toward type 2 diabetes (T2D) by analyzing time trajectories of fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA2%S]), and β-cell secretion (HOMA2%B) in a large nondiabetic cohort. We also examined whether baseline HbA(1c) modified the effect of genetic predisposition on the time trajectories.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Time trajectories were drawn in 4,744 participants from the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (D.E.S.I.R.) cohort based on samples collected every 3 years over a 9-year follow-up. Trajectories were analyzed according to the TCF7L2 common variant, a family history of T2D, and a combination of at-risk alleles from nine T2D-associated genes.

RESULTS: There was a marked decrease in HOMA2%B in parallel to a steep increase in HbA(1c) over the 3 years before incident diabetes, which was not influenced by genetic predisposition when considered alone. However, after the onset of T2D, the TCF7L2 at-risk variant was associated with a greater decrease in HOMA2%B. There was a joint effect of a family history of T2D with the presence of the TCF7L2 risk allele with a greater rise in HbA(1c) conferred by the coexistence of a family history and the T risk allele. An HbA(1c) ≥5.7% at baseline was associated with a greater increase in both glycemia and HbA(1c) levels in the presence of a combination of diabetes at-risk alleles.

CONCLUSIONS: After incident T2D, TCF7L2 at-risk variants were associated with a faster decrease in β-cell function compared with those with the CC genotype. There was a joint effect of family history of T2D and TCF7L2 risk variant on the rise in glycemia and the decrease in insulin secretion at the end of follow-up, suggesting the joint influence of the combination of diabetes genetic predisposition with familial factors on the evolution of glycemia over time.

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