Plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and proinflammatory ligand for RAGE (EN-RAGE) are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with peritoneal dialysis

Jwa-Kyung Kim, Sungha Park, Mi Jung Lee, Young Rim Song, Seung Hyeok Han, Sung Gyun Kim, Shin-Wook Kang, Kyu Hun Choi, Hyung Jik Kim, Tae-Hyun Yoo
Atherosclerosis 2012, 220 (1): 208-14

OBJECTIVES: The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) exerts a protective effect on the development of atherosclerotic vascular complications by inhibiting RAGE-mediated inflammatory response. In contrast, extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein (EN-RAGE) contributes to increased atherosclerosis as a pro-inflammatory ligand for RAGE. We determined the levels of sRAGE and EN-RAGE in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and evaluated their relationship with carotid atherosclerosis.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 91 PD patients and 29 control subjects. Carotid IMT (cIMT) and abdominal aortic vascular calcification score (VCS) were evaluated using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography and plain radiographic film of the lateral abdomen.

RESULTS: Plasma sRAGE and EN-RAGE levels were more than twice as higher in PD patients compared to controls. EN-RAGE showed a strong positive correlation with serum high-sensitivity CRP (p=0.007) and IL-6 (p=0.002), whereas sRAGE was negatively associated with those inflammatory markers (p=0.001, p=0.031). Even after adjustments for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, both sRAGE and EN-RAGE were independently associated with cIMT (β=-0.230, p=0.037, β=0.155, p=0.045) and VCS (β=-0.205, p=0.049, β=0.197, p=0.156). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that old age (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.25, p=0.009), presence of diabetes (OR 13.4, 95% CI: 1.20-150.18, p=0.035) and elevated plasma EN-RAGE (OR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.05-5.11, p=0.048) were significant predictors for the occurrence of carotid atherosclerosis (cIMT>1.0mm and/or plaque formation).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma EN-RAGE and decreased sRAGE level could play a crucial role in systemic inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis in PD patients.

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