The association between physical activity, physical fitness and development of metabolic disorders

Lars B Andersen, Anna Bugge, Magnus Dencker, Stig Eiberg, Bianca El-Naaman
International Journal of Pediatric Obesity: IJPO 2011, 6: 29-34

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors have been shown to cluster in some children. This has been shown in children from the age of nine years, but recently we found no clustering in six-year old children. It is uncertain when clustering develops and which parameters are related to the development of clustered CVD risk.

METHODS: A longitudinal study including 484 children aged six years. Three years later, 434 children participated in a follow-up. The main outcome was clustering of five CVD risk factors: homeostasis assessment insulin resistance (HOMA), total cholesterol:HDL ratio, triglyceride (TG), systolic blood pressure and sum of four skinfolds. Independent variables were physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

RESULTS: CVD risk factors were independently distributed in the six-year-olds, and there was no association between composite risk factor score and physical fitness or activity even if there were obese and unfit children in the population. Clustering of CVD risk factors was found at the age of nine years, and the observed number with three or more CVD risk factors was 3.33 (95% CI: 1.41-7.87) times higher than expected if risk factors had been independently distributed. At the age of nine years, the lowest quartile of fitness had 34.9 (95% CI: 8.0-152.5) times higher risk of having clustered risk than the most fit quartile.

CONCLUSION: Clustering of CVD risk factors developed between the age of six and nine years. At nine years of age clustered CVD risk was highly associated with low fitness level.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"