[Eye irritation and chemical eye burns. Review of experimental and clinical studies]

A K Cordes, M Frentz, N F Schrage
Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 2011, 108 (10): 910-5
Chemical burns of the eye are becoming rare due to improvements in occupational protection. Effective decontamination is the foundation for good clinical results of this ophthalmological emergency. The toxicological aspect focuses on classifying the specific toxicity of a chemical substance by evaluating the degree of eye irritation and eye burns. Chemical substances are classified into defined risk levels by specific tests. The traditional ophthalmological approach is based on the clinical presentation of eye burns as a result of contact with a specific toxic substance. In an integral approach it is shown that substance-specific characteristics, such as concentration and specific reactivity as well as individual features, such as mode and duration of exposition have an influence on the clinical appearance of the tissue damage. The decontamination is dependent on the mode of action and the effectiveness of the decontamination solution. Amphoteric substances have the best effectiveness for decontamination of the eye due to their specific characteristics.

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