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Persistent pulmonary hypertension results in reduced tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin and mitochondrial complex II + III during the development of right ventricular hypertrophy in the neonatal pig heart

Harjot K Saini-Chohan, Shyamala Dakshinamurti, William A Taylor, Garry X Shen, Robert Murphy, Genevieve C Sparagna, Grant M Hatch
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2011, 301 (4): H1415-24
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) results in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy followed by right heart failure and an associated mitochondrial dysfunction. The phospholipid cardiolipin plays a key role in maintaining mitochondrial respiratory and cardiac function via modulation of the activities of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, changes in cardiolipin and cardiolipin metabolism were investigated during the development of right heart failure. Newborn piglets (<24 h old) were exposed to a hypoxic (10% O(2)) environment for 3 days, resulting in the induction of PPHN. Two sets of control piglets were used: 1) newborn or 2) exposed to a normoxic (21% O(2)) environment for 3 days. Cardiolipin biosynthetic and remodeling enzymes, mitochondrial complex II + III activity, incorporation of [1-(14)C]linoleoyl-CoA into cardiolipin precursors, and the tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin pool size were determined in both the RV and left ventricle (LV). PPHN resulted in an increased heart-to-body weight ratio, RV-to-LV plus septum weight ratio, and expression of brain naturetic peptide in RV. In addition, PPHN reduced cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling in the RV and LV, which resulted in decreased tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin levels and reduced complex II + III activity and protein levels of mitochondrial complexes II, III, and IV in the RV. This is the first study to examine the pattern of cardiolipin metabolism during the early development of both the RV and LV of the newborn piglet and to demonstrate that PPHN-induced alterations in cardiolipin biosynthetic and remodeling enzymes contribute to reduced tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin and mitochondrial respiratory chain function during the development of RV hypertrophy. These defects in cardiolipin may play an important role in the rapid development of RV dysfunction and right heart failure in PPHN.


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