Metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean pediatric cohort: prevalence using International Diabetes Federation-derived criteria and associations with adiponectin and leptin

Constantina Papoutsakis, Mary Yannakoulia, Ioanna Ntalla, George V Dedoussis
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2012, 61 (2): 140-5
The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) components and examine associations with adipokine concentrations in a healthy pediatric cohort. A cross-sectional study of 1138 children (53% girls; mean age of all participants, 11.2 ± 0.7 years) was performed. Anthropometric and medical information was obtained; and a fasting blood sample was used to measure glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin serum concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed by the insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment. Body weight status (normal, overweight, and obese) was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force. Estimation of the MS was based on the International Diabetes Federation definition. The prevalence of the MS was 0.7% of children, all of whom were obese. Frequency of abdominal obesity, high fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure was 4.8%, 4.7%, 0, 12.3%, and 33%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) and z-BMI score increased significantly as the number of cardiometabolic risk factors increased. Regression analysis revealed that adiponectin (β = -0.501, P = .003) and leptin (β = 0.184, P < .0001) independently predicted the number of MS features. This finding was no longer significant after adjustment for BMI. In the present study, we provide the first estimate of the prevalence of the MS among healthy periadolescents in Greece using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The MS prevalence was low, with elevated blood pressure being the most dominant feature. Finally, associations with adipokines are mediated by BMI.

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