Bone regeneration using porous titanium particles versus bovine hydroxyapatite: a sinus lift study in rabbits

France Lambert, Geoffrey Lecloux, Angelique Léonard, Sophie Sourice, Pierre Layrolle, Eric Rompen
Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research 2013, 15 (3): 412-26

AIM: The first objective of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the bone formation process, particularly the long-term behavior and three-dimensional volume stability of subsinusal bone regeneration, using titanium (Ti) or bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) granules, in a rabbit model. The second objective was to evaluate the effect of the hydration of the BHA particles with a therapeutic concentration of doxycycline solution on the osteogenesis and biomaterial resorption.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbits underwent a double sinus lift procedure using one of three materials: grade 1 porous Ti particles, BHA, or BHA hydrated with doxycycline solution (0.1mg/ml) (BHATTC). Animals were sacrificed after 1 week, 5 weeks, or 6 months. Samples were analyzed using µCT and nondecalcified histology.

RESULTS: The materials used in each of the three groups allowed an optimal bone formation; bone quantities and densities were not statistically different between the three groups. At 6 months, more stable three-dimensional volume stability was found with Ti and BHATTC (p=.0033). At 5 weeks and 6 months, bone to material contact corroborating osteoconduction was significantly higher with BHA and BHATTC than with Ti (p<.0001).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Even though the studied biomaterials displayed different architectures, they are relevant candidates for sinus lift bone augmentation prior to dental implants because they allow adequate three-dimensional stability and osteogenesis. However, to recommend the clinical use of Ti, both an observation on the drilling effects of Ti particles and clinical trials are needed.

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