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JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

Crystalloid resuscitation improves survival in trauma patients receiving low ratios of fresh frozen plasma to packed red blood cells

Nicholas Spoerke, Joel Michalek, Martin Schreiber, K J Brasel, G Vercruysse, J MacLeod, R P Dutton, J C Duchesne, N E McSwain, P Muskat, J Johannigamn, H M Cryer, A Tillou, M J Cohen, J F Pittet, P Knudson, M A De Moya, B Tieu, S Brundage, L M Napolitano, M Brunsvold, K C Sihler, A B Peitzman, M S Zenait, J Sperry, L Alarcon, M A Croce, J P Minei, R M Stewart, S M Cohn, J E Mickalek, E M Bulger, B A Cotton, T C Nunez, R Ivatury, J W Meredith, P Miller, G J Pomper, B Marin
Journal of Trauma 2011, 71 (2 Suppl 3): S380-3
21814108

BACKGROUND: Current trauma resuscitation guidelines recommend giving an initial crystalloid bolus as first line for resuscitation. Recent studies have shown a survival benefit for trauma patients resuscitated with high ratios of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to packed red blood cells (PRBC). Our aim was to determine whether the volume of crystalloid given during resuscitation correlated with differences in morbidity or mortality based on the ratio of FFP:PRBC given.

METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 2,473 transfused trauma patients at 23 Level I trauma centers from July 2005 to October 2007. Patients were separated based on the ratios of FFP:PRBC they received (<1:4, 1:4-1:1, and >1:1) and then analyzed for morbidity and mortality based on whether or not they received at least 1 L crystalloid for each unit of PRBC. Outcomes analyzed were 6-hour, 24-hour, and 30-day survival as well as intensive care unit (ICU)-free days, ventilator-free days, and hospital-free days.

RESULTS: Massive transfusion patients who received <1:4 ratios of FFP:PRBC had significantly improved 6-hour, 24-hour, and 30-day mortality and significantly more ventilator-free days if they received at least 1 L of crystalloid for each unit of PRBC. Nonmassive transfusion patients who received <1:4 ratios of FFP:PRBC had significantly improved 6-hour, 24-hour, and 30-day mortality and significantly more ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, and hospital-free days if they received at least 1 L crystalloid for each unit of PRBC. In both massive and nonmassive transfusion groups, the survival benefit and morbidity benefit was progressively less for the 1:4 to 1:1 FFP:PRBC groups and >1:1 FFP:PRBC groups.

CONCLUSIONS: If high ratios of FFP:PRBC are unable to be given to trauma patients, resuscitation with at least 1 L of crystalloid per unit of PRBC is associated with improved overall mortality.

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