Biopsy-confirmed de novo renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in renal grafts: a single-centre management experience in a 2396 recipient cohort

Guillaume Ploussard, Damien Chambade, Paul Meria, François Gaudez, Edouard Tariel, Jérôme Verine, Cédric De Bazelaire, Marie-Noëlle Peraldi, Denis Glotz, François Desgrandchamps, Pierre Mongiat-Artus
BJU International 2012, 109 (2): 195-9

OBJECTIVE: To study the natural history of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development in renal grafts and their management.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report a single-centre series of de novo RCC in allografts from a cohort of 2396 consecutive renal transplant recipients.

RESULTS: In all, 17 RCCs were detected in 12 patients, representing 0.5% of kidney recipients. The mean patient age was 55 years and the time to RCC diagnosis since transplantation was 13 years. The mean diameter of the RCC was 23 mm. Biopsies were taken in all cases. Concordance between biopsy and surgical specimens was 100% for nuclear grade and pathological type. Four graft removals were performed and six patients underwent nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Two cryoablations were performed. Overall, nine papillary RCC, five clear cell carcinomas, and one chromophobe cell carcinoma were removed surgically. The mean follow-up was 43 months. One local recurrence was reported in a patient treated by NSS.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support evidence that radiological screening of kidney recipients allows the detection of small tumours for which a conservative management by NSS or non-surgically destructive techniques can be proposed with mid-term oncological safety. Systematic tumour biopsy may help in the management and treatment decision. Several questions remain unanswered such as the importance of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in the chemoprevention of the recurrence and the genetic cell origin of RCC in renal grafts.

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