Increased endothelin-1 vasoconstriction in mesenteric resistance arteries after superior mesenteric ischaemia-reperfusion

S Martínez-Revelles, L Caracuel, A Márquez-Martín, Ap Dantas, E Oliver, P D'Ocon, E Vila
British Journal of Pharmacology 2012, 165 (4): 937-50

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in the maintenance of vascular tone. We aimed to evaluate the influence of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) on mesenteric resistance artery vasomotor function and the mechanism involved in the changes in vascular responses to ET-1.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: SMA from male Sprague-Dawley rats was occluded (90 min) and following reperfusion (24h), mesenteric resistance arteries were dissected. Vascular reactivity was studied using wire myography. Protein and mRNA expression, superoxide anion (O(2) (•-) ) production and ET-1 plasma concentration were evaluated by immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR, ethidium fluorescence and elisa, respectively.

KEY RESULTS: I/R increased ET-1 plasma concentration, ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction and ET(B) mRNA expression, and down-regulated ET(A) mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence confirmed mRNA results and revealed an increase in ET(B) receptors in the mesenteric resistance artery media layer after I/R. Therefore, the ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin-6 induced a contraction that was inhibited by the ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788 only in vessels, with and without endothelium, from I/R rats. Furthermore, BQ788 potentiated ET-1 vasoconstriction only in sham rats. Endothelium removal in rings from I/R rats unmasked the inhibition of ET-1 vasoconstriction by BQ788. Endothelium removal, N(ω) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and superoxide dismutase abolished the differences in ET-1 vasoconstriction between sham and I/R rats. We also found that I/R down-regulates endothelial NOS mRNA expression and concomitantly enhanced O(2) (•-) production by increasing NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX-1) and p(47phox) mRNA.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Mesenteric I/R potentiated the ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction by a mechanism that involves up-regulation of muscular ET(B) receptors and decrease in NO bioavailability.

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