[Comparison of two protocols of febrile urinary tract infection management in children]

T Blanchais, A Legrand, E Allain Launay, M-D Leclair, J Caillon, G Roussey-Kesler
Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie 2011, 18 (9): 955-61

PURPOSE: To compare two first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) management protocols with regards to the diagnosis of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and cost.

METHODS: This study compared two cohorts of children under 16 years of age, admitted for a first episode of febrile UTI. The first group (in 2005) was managed according to previous recommendations (IV treatment and cystography performed for all children under 3 years of age). The second group (in 2006) was managed according to age and procalcitonin level. High-grade VUR frequency, UTI recurrence, hospitalization rate, and cost were compared between the two cohorts.

RESULTS: A total of 225 children were included in 2005 and 116 in 2006. High-grade VUR was found in 6.2 and 9.5% of the patients in 2005 and 2006, respectively (P=0.274). There was no statistically significant difference in the UTI recurrence rate between the two cohorts (5.3% in 2005 and 8.6% in 2006; P=0.237). The mean cost of an episode of febrile UTI was not significantly different in 2005 and 2006 (€2235 in 2005, €2256 in 2006; P=0.902), but was lower for children older than 6 months in 2006 (€1292 versus €1882 in 2005; P=0.0042).

CONCLUSION: Our management protocol for a first febrile UTI episode in children based on procalcitonin levels seems to be suitable for the diagnosis of high-grade VUR. The hospitalization rate and the mean cost of management for children older than 6 months of age was significantly reduced in 2006. The management guidelines for a first occurrence of febrile UTI in children should be reconsidered.

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