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Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Mutation in the tight-junction gene claudin 19 (CLDN19) and familial hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and severe ocular disease.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare renal tubular disorder complicated by progressive renal failure during childhood or adolescence. Recently, causative mutations in the CLDN19 gene have been identified in FHHNC patients presenting with severe ocular involvement. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular genetic defect underlying FHHNC in a consanguineous Pakistani family.

METHODS: Clinical and biochemical parameters of the proband were studied during the follow-up period over 5 years. Genotyping of 7 members of the family was performed by amplifying microsatellite markers, tightly linked to the CLDN16 and CLDN19 genes. The two genes were sequenced directly in an automated sequencer. PCR-RFLP assay and bioinformatic analysis were performed to verify the identified mutation.

RESULTS: Genotyping revealed that the proband was homozygous for the marker loci tightly linked to the CLDN19 gene. Sequence analysis in the proband revealed homozygosity for a novel missense mutation in exon 3 of the CLDN19 gene (389G>A) resulting in G130D amino acid substitution. Bioinformatic analysis supported the pathogenicity of the identified mutation. Family screening revealed nephrolithiasis in 3 of 6 (50%) heterozygous carriers of the pathogenic mutation.

CONCLUSION: This study supports the fundamental role of claudin 19 for magnesium homeostasis, normal tubular structures in the kidney, and undisturbed organization and development of the retina.

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