PAI-1 is an essential component of the pulmonary host response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in mice

Arnaud Goolaerts, Mathieu Lafargue, Yuanlin Song, Byron Miyazawa, Mehrdad Arjomandi, Michel Carlès, Jérémie Roux, Marybeth Howard, Dale A Parks, Karen E Iles, Jean-François Pittet
Thorax 2011, 66 (9): 788-96

RATIONALE: Elevated plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels are associated with adverse clinical outcome in patients with pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, whether PAI-1 plays a pathogenic role in the breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier caused by P aeruginosa is unknown.

OBJECTIVES: The role of PAI-1 in pulmonary host defence and survival during P aeruginosa pneumonia in mice was tested. The in vitro mechanisms by which P aeruginosa causes PAI-1 gene and protein expression in lung endothelial and epithelial cells were also examined.

METHODS AND RESULTS: PAI-1 null and wild-type mice that were pretreated with the PAI-1 inhibitor Tiplaxtinin had a significantly lower increase in lung vascular permeability than wild-type littermates after the airspace instillation of 1×10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of P aeruginosa bacteria. Furthermore, P aeruginosa in vitro induced the expression of the PAI-1 gene and protein in a TLR4/p38/RhoA/NF-κB (Toll-like receptor 4/p38/RhoA/nuclear factor-κB) manner in lung endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells. However, in vivo disruption of PAI-1 signalling was associated with higher mortality at 24 h (p<0.03) and higher bacterial burden in the lungs secondary to decreased neutrophil migration into the distal airspace in response to P aeruginosa.

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that PAI-1 is a critical mediator that controls the development of the early lung inflammation that is required for the activation of the later innate immune response necessary for the eradication of P aeruginosa from the distal airspaces of the lung.

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