In vitro generation of osteochondral differentiation of human marrow mesenchymal stem cells in novel collagen-hydroxyapatite layered scaffolds

Jiaan Zhou, Caixia Xu, Gang Wu, Xiaodong Cao, Liangming Zhang, Zhichen Zhai, Zhiwen Zheng, Xiaofeng Chen, Yingjun Wang
Acta Biomaterialia 2011, 7 (11): 3999-4006
Integrated, layered osteochondral (OC) composite materials and/or engineered OC grafts are considered as promising strategies for the treatment of OC damage. A novel biomimetic collagen-hydroxyapatite (COL-HA) OC scaffold with different integrated layers has been generated by freeze-drying. The capacity of the upper COL layer and the lower COL/HA layer to promote the growth and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into chondrocytes and osteoblasts respectively was evaluated. Cell viability and proliferation on COL and COL/HA scaffolds were assessed by the MTT test. The chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs on both scaffolds was evaluated by glucosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification, alcian blue staining, type II collagen immunocytochemistry assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction in chondrogenic medium for 21 days. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity assay, type I collagen immunocytochemistry staining, alizarin S staining and mRNA expression of osteogenic gene for 14 days in osteogenic medium. The results indicated that hMSCs on both COL and COL/HA scaffolds were viable and able to proliferate over time. The COL layer was more efficient in inducing hMSC chondrogenic differentiation than the COL/HA layer, while the COL/HA layer possessed the superiority on promoting hMSC osteogenic induction over either COL layer or pure HA. In conclusion, the layered OC composite materials can effectively promote cartilage and bone tissue generation in vitro and are potentially usable for OC tissue engineering.

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