Bilateral total knee arthroplasty: risk factors for major morbidity and mortality

Stavros G Memtsoudis, Yan Ma, Ya-Lin Chiu, Lazaros Poultsides, Alejandro Gonzalez Della Valle, Madhu Mazumdar
Anesthesia and Analgesia 2011, 113 (4): 784-90

BACKGROUND: Bilateral total knee arthroplasty (BTKA) performed during the same hospitalization carries increased risk for morbidity and mortality compared with the unilateral approach. However, no evidence-based stratifications to identify patients at risk for major morbidity and mortality are available. Our objective was to determine the incidence and patient-related risk factors for major morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing BTKA.

METHODS: Nationwide Inpatient Survey data collected for the years 1998 to 2007 were analyzed and cases of elective BTKA procedures were included. Patient demographics, including comorbidities, were analyzed and frequencies of mortality and major complications were computed. Subsequently, a multivariate analysis was conducted to determine independent risk factors for major morbidity and mortality.

RESULTS: Included were 42,003 database entries, representing an estimated 206,573 elective BTKAs. The incidence of major in-hospital complications and mortality was 9.5%. Risk factors for adverse outcome included advanced age (odds ratios [ORs] for age groups 65-74 and >75 years were 1.88 [confidence interval, CI: 1.72, 2.05] and 2.66 [CI: 2.42, 2.92], respectively, compared with the 45-65 years group), male gender (OR: 1.54 [CI: 1.44, 1.66]), and a number of comorbidities. The presence of congestive heart failure (OR: 5.55 [CI: 4.81, 6.39]) and pulmonary hypertension (OR: 4.10 [CI: 2.72, 6.10]) were the most significant risk factors associated with increased odds for adverse outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified patient-related risk factors for major morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing BTKA. Our data can be used to aid in the selection of patients for this procedure.

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