[Traumatic injuries of the sternoclavicular joint]

D Maier, M Jaeger, K Izadpanah, L Bornebusch, N P Südkamp
Der Unfallchirurg 2011, 114 (7): 611-21; quiz 622-3
Traumatic injuries of the sternoclavicular joint occur rarely and are mainly caused by an indirect trauma mechanism with high kinetic energy. Anterior dislocation is much more common than posterior dislocation, which may be associated with life-threatening injuries. The CT scan is the diagnostic tool of choice for accurate assessment of the injury and coexisting pathologies. The primary goal in anterior and posterior dislocations is an early closed reduction. In cases of redislocation after closed reduction of an anterior dislocation we recommend primary joint reconstruction on the basis of an individual therapeutic concept. Posterior dislocations often cannot be reduced by closed means. Then open reconstruction and stabilization are performed. Chronic instabilities should only be addressed surgically in cases of persistent pain and/or functional deficit. Resection of the medial clavicula represents an effective treatment option in post-traumatic sternoclavicular joint arthritis provided that the costoclavicular ligaments are intact or will be reconstructed during surgery. Physeal injuries of the medial clavicle can occur until an approximate age of 25. Closed reduction of dislocated physeal injuries is attempted. After reposition non-operative treatment in general leads to a good functional outcome. Posteriorly dislocated physeal injuries often cannot be reduced by closed means. In these cases good function can be expected after open stabilization.

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