Perioperative anxiety and the resulting lack of cooperation during induction of anesthesia is a common problem in pediatric anesthesia. The extent of anxiety depends on a variety of factors concerning the child, the parents, the anesthesia team and the hospital's friendly atmosphere and infrastructure. Apart from premedication there are a number of non-pharmacological means to improve the child's cooperation and thereby facilitate the induction of anesthesia. If the child is still uncooperative despite an optimal preparation, the anesthetist has to decide whether to postpone the operation or to perform induction of anesthesia under physical restraint in consideration of various criteria.
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