Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging techniques for measurement of aortic annulus diameters before transcatheter aortic valve implantation

Ertunc Altiok, Ralf Koos, Jörg Schröder, Kathrin Brehmer, Sandra Hamada, Michael Becker, Andreas H Mahnken, Mohammad Almalla, Guido Dohmen, Rüdiger Autschbach, Nikolaus Marx, Rainer Hoffmann
Heart 2011, 97 (19): 1578-84

AIMS: Different two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques are used for procedure planning and selection of prosthesis size before transcatheter aortic valve implantation. This study sought to compare different 2D and 3D imaging techniques and determine the accuracy of 3D transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for accurate analysis of aortic annulus dimensions.

METHODS: In 49 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation angiography, 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 2D and 3D TEE, and dual-source CT (DSCT) were performed to determine aortic annulus diameters. TTE and 2D TEE provided only one diameter of the aortic annulus. Angiography, DSCT and 3D TEE allowed measurement of diameters in sagittal and coronal views. The distance between aortic annulus and left main coronary artery ostium was measured by angiography, DSCT and 3D TEE.

RESULTS: Sagittal diameters determined by angiography, TTE, 2D TEE, 3D TEE and DSCT were smaller than coronal diameters determined by angiography, 3D TEE and DSCT. Coronal and sagittal diameters determined by 3D TEE were in high agreement with corresponding measurements by DSCT (23.60±1.89 vs 23.46±2.07 mm and 22.19±1.96 vs 22.27±2.01 mm, respectively; mean±SD). There was a high correlation between DSCT and 3D TEE for the definition of coronal and sagittal aortic annulus diameters (r=0.88, SEE=0.89 mm and r=0.77, SEE=1.26 mm, respectively). Correlation of 3D TEE (13.47±1.67 mm) and DSCT (13.64±1.82 mm) in the analysis of the distance between aortic annulus and left main coronary artery ostium was better (r=0.54, SEE=1.55 mm) than between angiography (14.85±3.84 mm) and DSCT (r=0.35, SEE=1.77 mm).

CONCLUSIONS: 3D imaging techniques should be used to evaluate aortic annulus diameters, as 2D imaging techniques, providing only a sagittal view, underestimate them. 3D TEE provides measurements of aortic annulus diameters similar to those obtained by DSCT.

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