JOURNAL ARTICLE

Organophosphate hydrolases as catalytic bioscavengers of organophosphorus nerve agents

Marie Trovaslet-Leroy, Lucie Musilova, Frédérique Renault, Xavier Brazzolotto, Jan Misik, Ladislav Novotny, Marie-Thérèse Froment, Emilie Gillon, Mélanie Loiodice, Laurent Verdier, Patrick Masson, Daniel Rochu, Daniel Jun, Florian Nachon
Toxicology Letters 2011 September 25, 206 (1): 14-23
21683774
Bioscavengers are molecules able to neutralize neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OP) before they can reach their biological target. Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is a natural bioscavenger each molecule of enzyme neutralizing one molecule of OP. The amount of natural enzyme is insufficient to achieve good protection. Thus, different strategies have been envisioned. The most straightforward consists in injecting a large dose of highly purified natural hBChE to increase the amount of bioscavenger in the bloodstream. This proved to be successful for protection against lethal doses of soman and VX but remains expensive. An improved strategy is to regenerate prophylactic cholinesterases (ChE) by administration of reactivators after exposure. But broad-spectrum efficient reactivators are still lacking, especially for inhibited hBChE. Cholinesterase mutants capable of reactivating spontaneously are another option. The G117H hBChE mutant has been a prototype. We present here the Y124H/Y72D mutant of human acetylcholinesterase; its spontaneous reactivation rate after V-agent inhibition is increased up to 110 fold. Catalytic bioscavengers, enzymes capable of hydrolyzing OP, present the best alternative. Mesophilic bacterial phosphotriesterase (PTE) is a candidate with good catalytic efficiency. Its enantioselectivity has been enhanced against the most potent OP isomers by rational design. We show that PEGylation of this enzyme improves its mean residence time in the rat blood stream 24-fold and its bioavailability 120-fold. Immunogenic issues remain to be solved. Human paraoxonase 1 (hPON1) is another promising candidate. However, its main drawback is that its phosphotriesterase activity is highly dependent on its environment. Recent progress has been made using a mammalian chimera of PON1, but we provide here additional data showing that this chimera is biochemically different from hPON1. Besides, the chimera is expected to suffer from immunogenic issues. Thus, we stress that interest for hPON1 must not fade away, and in particular, the 3D structure of the hPON1 eventually in complex with OP has to be solved.

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