[European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2010]

Silvija Hunyadi-Anticević, Zeljko Colak, Ines Lojna Funtak, Anita Lukić, Boris Filipović-Grcić, Branka Tomljanović, Hrvoje Kniewald, Alen Protić, Tatjana Pandak, Zdravka Poljaković, Marino Canadija
Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik 2011, 133 (1-2): 1-14
All rescuers trained or not, should provide chest compressions to victims of cardiac arrest. The aim should be to push to a depth of at least 5 cm at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute, to allow full chest recoil, and to minimise interruptions in chest compressions. Trained rescuers should also provide ventilations with a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2. ELECTRICAL THERAPIES: Much greater emphasis on minimising the duration of the pre-shock and post-shock pauses; the continuation of compressions during charging of the defibrillator is recommended. Further development of AED programmes is encouraged. ADULT ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT: Increased emphasis on high-quality chest compressions throughout any ALS intervention paused briefly only to enable specific interventions. Removal of the recommendation for a pre-specified period of cardiopulmonary resuscitation before out-of-hospital defibrillation following cardiac arrest unwitnessed by the EMS. The role of precordial thump is de-emphasized. Delivery of drugs via a tracheal tube is no longer recommended, drugs should be given by the intraosseous (IO) route. Atropine is no longer recommended for routine use in asystole or pulseless electrical activity. Reduced emphasis on early tracheal intubation unless achieved by highly skilled individuals with minimal interruptions in chest compressions. Increased emphasis on the use of capnography. Recognition of potential harm caused by hyperoxaemia. Revision of the recommendation of glucose control. Use of therapeutic hypothermia to include comatose survivors of cardiac arrest associated initially with shockable rhythms, as well as non-shockable rhythms, with a lower level of evidence acknowledged for the latter. INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES: The term non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction-acute coronary syndrome (non-STEMI-ACS) has been introduced for both NSTEMI and unstable angina pectoris. Primary PCI (PPCI) is the preferred reperfusion strategy provided it is performed in a timely manner by an experienced team. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided, as well as routine use of intravenous beta-blockers; oxygen is to be given only to those patients with hypoxaemia, breathlessness or pulmonary congestion. PAEDIATRIC LIFE SUPPORT: The decision to begin resuscitation must be taken in less than 10 seconds. Lay rescuers should be taught to use a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 ventilations, rescuers with a duty to respond should learn and use a 15:2 ratio; however, they can use the 30:2 compression-ventilation ratio if they are alone. Ventilation remains a very important component of resuscitation in asphyxial arrest. The emphasis is on achieving quality compressions with the rate of at least 100 but not greater than 120 per minute, with minimal interruptions. AEDs are safe and successful when used in children older than 1 year. A single shock strategy using a non-escalating dose of 4 J/kg is recommended for defibrillation in children. Cuffed tubes can be used safely in infants and young children. Monitoring exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2), ideally by capnography, is recommended during resuscitation. RESUSCITATION OF BABIES AT BIRTH: For uncompromised babies, a delay in cord clamping of at least one minute from the complete delivery is now recommended. For term infants, air should be used fro resuscitation at birth. For preterm babies less than 32 weeks gestation blended oxygen and air should be given judiciously and its use guided by pulse oximetry. Preterm babies of less than 28 weeks gestation should be completely covered in a plastic wrap up to their necks, without drying, immediately after birth. The recommended compression: ventilation ratio remains at 3:1 for newborn resuscitation. Attempts to aspirate meconium from the nose and mouth of the unborn baby, while the head is still on the perineum, are not recommended. If adrenaline is given the n the intravenous route is recommended using a dose of 10-30 microg/kg. Newly born infants born at term or near-term with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy should be treated with therapeutic hypothermia. PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION IN RESUSCITATION: The aim is to ensure that learners acquire and retain skill and knowledge that will enable them to act correctly in actual cardiac arrest and improve patient outcome. Short video/computer self-instruction courses, with minimal or no instructor coaching, combined with hands-on practice can be considered as an effective alternative to instructor-led basic life support (BLS and AED) courses. Ideally all citizens should be trained in standard CPR that includes compressions and ventilations. Basic and advanced life support knowledge and skills deteriorate in as little as three to six months. CPR prompt or feedback devices improve CPR skill acquisition and retention.

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