JOURNAL ARTICLE

Efficacy of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against hematophagous parasites

Chidambaram Jayaseelan, Abdul Abdul Rahuman, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar, Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi, Sampath Marimuthu, Asokan Bagavan, Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Abdul Abduz Zahir, Gandhi Elango, Kanayairam Velayutham, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao, Loganathan Karthik, Sankariah Raveendran
Parasitology Research 2012, 111 (2): 921-33
21638210
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity against the larvae of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) and larvae of hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) and against the fourth-instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract from Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae). The color of the extract changed to light brown within an hour, and later it changed to dark brown during the 30-min incubation period. AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 426 nm; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag(+) ions to silver nanoparticles are due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrates that the nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis are crystalline in nature and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with rod in shape and size of 60-150 nm. After reaction, the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2θ = 34.37°, 38.01°, 44.17°, 66.34° and 77.29° assigned to the (100), (111), (102), (110) and (120) planes, respectively, of a faced centre cubic (fcc) lattice of silver were obtained. For electron microscopic studies, a 25 μl sample was sputter-coated on copper stub, and the images of nanoparticles were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. The parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. In the present study, the percent mortality of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca were 82, 71, 46, 29, 11 and 78, 66, 38, 31and 16 observed in the concentrations of 50, 40, 30, 20, 10 mg/l for 24 h against the larvae of H. bispinosa and Hip. maculata, respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca against the H. bispinosa, Hip. maculata, and the larvae of A. stephensi, C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC(50) values of 28.96, 31.02, 26.32, and 20.10 mg/lm, respectively (r (2) = 0.990, 0.968, 0.974, and 0.979, respectively). The synthesized AgNPs of M. paradisiaca showed the LC(50) and r (2) values against H. bispinosa, (1.87 mg/l; 0.963), Hip. maculata (2.02 mg/l; 0.976), and larvae of A. stephensi (1.39; 0.900 mg/l), against C. tritaeniorhynchus (1.63 mg/l; 0.951), respectively. The χ (2) values were significant at p < 0.05 level.

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