[Evaluation of the clinical and imaging examination in high-risk children with vesicoureteral reflux]

Li-Na Ji, Li Cao, Da-Kun Chen, Yan-Chun Cui, Yu-Lin Zhang, Hui Ye, Chun-Sheng Hao, Xin-Yu Yuan
Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics 2011, 49 (4): 282-6

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical data and result of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in high-risk children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) for better awareness of VUR, and to assess the usefulness of non-radioactive voiding ultrasonography (VUS) in the diagnosis of VUR.

METHOD: Ninety-three high-risk children with VUR who were hospitalized from July 2007 to April 2010 were studied. The study included 58 cases of urinary tract infection (UTI) and 35 cases of fetal or postnatal hydronephrosis detected on a B ultrasound scan. The results of urinalysis, urine culture, renal function, B ultrasound and VCUG were evaluated. Part of patients underwent VUS followed by VCUG immediately.

RESULT: (1) Sixty-two boys and 31 girls (aged 1 month to 11.5 years, mean age 2 years) were included. VUR was detected in 26 patients (28%) by VCUG. In terms of kidney-ureter units, VUR was detected in 36 of 186 kidney-ureter units, including 6 grade I, 3 grade II, 6 grade III, 15 grade IV and 6 grade V. (2) VUR was detected in 20 of 58 UTI patients (34.5%) by VCUG. The proportion of VUR in recurrent UTI group was 61.1%, much higher than that in first UTI group (22.5%). Thirteen of 20 VUR (65%) occurred in UTI patients under 1 year of age (M/F 10/3), with more bilateral VUR and severe grades of VUR than the older group. VUR was detected in 6 of 35 fetal or postnatal hydronephrosis patients (17.1%) by VCUG. (3) Twenty-two patients underwent both VUS and VCUG. VUR was detected in 4 patients and 6 kidney-ureter units by VCUG, while in 6 patients and 9 kidney-ureter units by VUS. Taking VCUG as the reference standard, VUS had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.1%, positive predictive value of 66.7%, and negative predictive value of 100%. There was a concordance rate of 93.2% between VUS and VCUG.

CONCLUSION: It is important to early screen VUR in UTI, fetal or postnatal hydronephrosis patients. There are more VUR, especially more bilateral VUR and severe grades of VUR, occurred in UTI patients under 1 year of age compared to older children. The incidence of VUR in recurrent UTI group was much higher than that in first UTI group. VUS is an accurate, reliable and radiation-free technique for the detection of VUR. It could be used to screen high-risk children for VUR and do the evaluation in the follow-up of VUR.

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