The Oxford classification as a predictor of prognosis in patients with IgA nephropathy

Seok Hui Kang, Sun Ryoung Choi, Hoon Suk Park, Ja Young Lee, In O Sun, Hyeon Seok Hwang, Byung Ha Chung, Cheol Whee Park, Chul Woo Yang, Yong Soo Kim, Yeong Jin Choi, Bum Soon Choi
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 2012, 27 (1): 252-8

BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Oxford classification was developed as a pathological classification system for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) to predict the risk of disease progression. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic relevance of the Oxford classification in Korean patients with a pathologic diagnosis of IgAN.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the renal pathology archives from January 2000 to December 2006 at Seoul St Mary's Hospital in Korea and identified 273 patients, who were diagnosed as having IgAN. We enrolled 197 patients who were available for further clinicopathologic analysis. All cases of IgAN were categorized according to the WHO classification, the semiquantitative classification and the Oxford classification. These pathologic classifications were compared. The clinical and laboratory findings at the time of biopsy were compared with those at the end of the follow-up according to the Oxford classification.

RESULTS: When three pathologic classifications were compared, M1, S1, E1, T1 or T2 were associated with a higher score in the activity index. S1, T1 or T2 were associated with a higher score in the chronicity index and a higher grade in the WHO classification. The clinical and laboratory findings were compared according to the Oxford classification. At the time of biopsy, the proteinuria in patients with M1 was more than that of M0 (P = 0.035). At the end of follow-up, the number of antihypertensive drugs taken among patients with M1 was greater than that of patients with M0 (P = 0.001). At the time of biopsy, the proteinuria of patients with S1 was greater than that of S0 patients (P = 0.009). At the end of follow-up, the number of patients who received immunosuppressants was increased as the grade of T increased (P = 0.000). At the end point of the follow-up, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreased as the grade of T increased (P = 0.008). The time-average proteinuria after adjusting the initial proteinuria increased significantly with increasing degree of T (P = 0.000). Levels of tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis were predictive for survival from end-stage renal disease or of having a 50% reduction of eGFR.

CONCLUSION: The pathologic variables of the Oxford classification correlated significantly with other classifications (the WHO classification and the semiquantitative classification). The Oxford classification is a simple method for predicting renal outcome and differentiating between active and chronic lesions. We suggest that the Oxford classification offers an advantage for determining treatment policy for patients with IgAN.

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