Biomechanical effect of bone cement augmentation on rotational stability and pull-out strength of the Proximal Femur Nail Antirotation™

S Erhart, W Schmoelz, M Blauth, A Lenich
Injury 2011, 42 (11): 1322-7

INTRODUCTION: After surgical treatment of osteoporotic hip fractures, complications such as implant cut-out are reported to be high and implant failure often is associated with poor bone quality. As augmentation is reported to enhance implant anchorage, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of bone cement augmentation on the rotational stability and the pull-out resistance of the Proximal Femur Nail Antirotation™ (PFNa) blade.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 fresh-frozen femoral heads (mean age 68 years, standard deviation (SD) 8.2) were scanned with quantitative computed tomography (qCT) for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and instrumented with a PFNa blade. Nine specimens were augmented with a mean volume of 4.4 ml Traumacem V+. After cement consolidation, the blade was rotated for 60° for the rotational test. Subsequently, the blade was extracted from the specimens. Force, torque, displacement and angle were recorded constantly.

RESULTS: In the rotational test, the mean maximum torque in the augmented group (17.2 Nm, SD 5.0) was significantly higher (p=0.017) than in the non-augmented group (11.7 Nm, SD 3.5). The pull-out test also yielded a significant difference (p=0.047) between the augmented (maximum pullout force: 2315.2N, SD 1060.6) and the non-augmented group (1180.4N, SD 1171.4).

DISCUSSION: Augmentation of femoral heads yielded a significantly superior rotational stability, as well as an enhanced pull-out resistance, compared to the non-augmented state. However, the higher the BMD of the specimens, the lower was the effect of augmentation on the rotational stability. Therefore, augmentation can be a good clinical tool to enhance implant anchorage in osteoporotic bone.

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