Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of branches extracts of five Juniperus species from Turkey

Maria Fernanda Taviano, Andreana Marino, Ada Trovato, Valentina Bellinghieri, Tommaso Massimo La Barbera, Ayşegül Güvenç, Muhammed Mesud Hürkul, Rita De Pasquale, Natalizia Miceli
Pharmaceutical Biology 2011, 49 (10): 1014-22

CONTEXT: Several Juniperus species (Cupressaceae) are utilized in folk medicine in the treatment of infections and skin diseases.

OBJECTIVE: This work was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of methanol and water branches extracts of Juniperus species from Turkey: Juniperus communis L. var. communis (Jcc), Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. (Jcs), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (Jd), Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo), Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolics, total flavonoids and condensed tannins were spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant properties were examined using different in vitro systems. The toxicity was assayed by Artemia salina lethality test. The antimicrobial potential against bacteria and yeasts was evaluated using minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) measurements. The effect on bacteria biofilms was tested by microtiter plate assay.

RESULTS: Both in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and TBA (thiobarbituric acid) test Jom resulted the most active (IC(50) = 0.034 ± 0.002 mg/mL and 0.287 ± 0.166 µg/mL). Joo exhibited the highest reducing power (1.78 ± 0.04 ASE/mL) and Fe(2+) chelating activity (IC(50) = 0.537 ± 0.006 mg/mL). A positive correlation between primary antioxidant activity and phenolic content was found. The extracts were potentially non-toxic against Artemia salina. They showed the best antimicrobial (MIC = 4.88-30.10 µg/mL) and anti-biofilm activity (60-84%) against S. aureus.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results give a scientific basis to the traditional utilization of these Juniperus species, also demonstrating their potential as sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

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