Renal cell carcinoma of native kidney in Chinese renal transplant recipients: a report of 12 cases and a review of the literature

Chi Yuen Cheung, Man Fai Lam, King Chung Lee, Gavin Sheung Wai Chan, Kwok Wah Chan, Ka Foon Chau, Chun Sang Li, Tak Mao Chan, Kar Neng Lai
International Urology and Nephrology 2011, 43 (3): 675-80

OBJECTIVES: To present and discuss the epidemiological and clinical aspects, as well as therapeutic options and outcome of de novo renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of the native kidneys in a series of Chinese renal transplant recipients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, cohort study examining all renal transplant recipients with the diagnosis of RCC of native kidney followed up in two major regional hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2000 and December 2009. Clinical data included age, gender, cause of renal failure, symptoms at presentation, duration of transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and history of acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD). Laboratory, radiographic, operative, and pathology reports were used to assess the tumor extent.

RESULTS: Among the 1,003 renal transplant recipients recruited, 12 transplant recipients had a nephrectomy for a total of 13 RCC. The prevalence of de novo RCC was 1.3%. The mean age at diagnosis of RCC was 48.4 years, and the median time from transplantation to diagnosis was 6.1 years. ACKD was found in 6 (50%) of the patients. All patients except one were asymptomatic. pT1 disease was found in ten patients with a mean tumor size of 3.2 cm. All patients were treated successfully with radical nephrectomy. After a median follow-up of 38 months, two patients (16.7%) died. One died of sepsis, and the other died of metastatic carcinoma.

CONCLUSIONS: With increasing data showing a better prognosis if RCC is detected early by screening, it is time to consider screening all kidney transplant recipients for ACKD and RCC.

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