Surgical nuances for removal of olfactory groove meningiomas using the endoscopic endonasal transcribriform approach

James K Liu, Lana D Christiano, Smruti K Patel, R Shane Tubbs, Jean Anderson Eloy
Neurosurgical Focus 2011, 30 (5): E3
Olfactory groove meningiomas represent 10% of intracranial meningiomas and arise in the midline of the anterior cranial fossa along the dura of the cribriform plate and planum sphenoidale. Hyperostosis of the adjacent underlying bone is common, and further extension into ethmoid sinuses and nasal cavity can occur in 15%-25% of cases. Radical tumor resection including the involved dural attachment and underlying hyperostotic bone offers the best chance of a Simpson Grade I resection to minimize recurrence. Incomplete removal of involved hyperostotic bone can result in tumor recurrence at the cribriform plate with extension into the paranasal sinuses. Resection has traditionally been performed using a bifrontal or pterional approach, both of which require some degree of brain retraction or manipulation to expose the tumor. The endoscopic endonasal transcribriform approach offers the most direct and immediate exposure to the tumor without brain retraction and manipulation of neurovascular structures. An endonasal "keyhole craniectomy" is performed in the ventral skull base directly over the basal dural attachment, extending from the posterior wall of the frontal sinus to the planum sphenoidale and tuberculum sellae in the anteroposterior plane, and from one medial orbit to the other in the coronal plane. Excellent panoramic visualization of the keyhole skull base defect can be obtained with a 30° endoscope after performing a modified Lothrop procedure. Because the dural attachment is adjacent to the paranasal sinuses, early devascularization and total Simpson Grade I removal of the tumor including the dural attachment and underlying hyperostotic bone can be achieved in properly selected patients. This approach is also very suitable for meningiomas that have recurred or extended into the paranasal sinuses. Extracapsular, extraarachnoid dissection of the tumor from the frontal lobes and neurovascular structures can be performed using conventional bimanual microsurgical techniques. In this report, we review the surgical technique and describe our operative nuances for removal of olfactory groove meningiomas, including recurrent tumors with extension into the nasal cavity, using a purely endoscopic endonasal transcribriform approach. In addition, we discuss the advantages, limitations, patient selection, and complications of this approach. We specifically highlight our technique for multilayer reconstruction of large anterior skull base dural defects using fascia lata and acellular dermal allograft supplemented by bilateral vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flaps. Three new cases of endoscopically resected olfactory groove meningiomas are also presented.

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