Surgical nuances for removal of tuberculum sellae meningiomas with optic canal involvement using the endoscopic endonasal extended transsphenoidal transplanum transtuberculum approach

James K Liu, Lana D Christiano, Smruti K Patel, R Shane Tubbs, Jean Anderson Eloy
Neurosurgical Focus 2011, 30 (5): E2
Tuberculum sellae meningiomas frequently extend into the optic canals. Radical tumor resection including the involved dural attachment, underlying hyperostotic bone, and intracanalicular tumor in the optic canal offers the best chance of a Simpson Grade I resection to minimize recurrence. Decompression of the optic canal with removal of the intracanalicular tumor also improves visual outcome since this portion of the tumor is usually the cause of asymmetrical visual loss. The purely endoscopic endonasal extended transsphenoidal approach offers a direct midline trajectory and immediate access to tuberculum sellae meningiomas without brain retraction and manipulation of neurovascular structures. Although the endoscopic approach has been previously criticized for its inability to remove tumor within the optic canals, complete Simpson Grade I tumor removal including intracanalicular tumor, dural attachment, and involved hyperostotic bone can be achieved in properly selected patients. Excellent visualization of the suprasellar region and the inferomedial aspects of both optic canals allows for extracapsular, extraarachnoid dissection of the tumor from the critical structures using bimanual microsurgical dissection. In this report, the authors describe the operative nuances for removal of tuberculum sellae meningiomas with optic canal involvement using a purely endoscopic endonasal extended transsphenoidal (transplanum transtuberculum) approach. They specifically highlight the technique for endonasal bilateral optic nerve decompression and removal of intracanalicular tumor to improve postoperative visual function, as demonstrated in 2 illustrative cases. Special attention is also given to cranial base reconstruction to prevent CSF leakage using the vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap.

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