Acute changes in pulmonary function following microinstillation inhalation exposure to soman in nonatropenized guinea pigs

Michael W Perkins, Zdenka Pierre, Peter Rezk, Jian Song, Samuel Oguntayo, Alfred M Sciuto, Bhupendra P Doctor, Madhusoodana P Nambiar
International Journal of Toxicology 2011, 30 (3): 348-57
Barometric whole-body plethysmography (WBP) was used to examine pulmonary functions at 4 and 24 hours postexposure to soman (GD) in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival. Endotracheal aerosolization by microinstillation was used to administer GD (280, 561, and 841 mg/m(3)) or saline to anesthetized guinea pigs. Significant increases in respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (TV), and minute volume (MV) were observed with 841 mg/m(3) GD at 4 hours and that were reduced at 24 hours postexposure. A dose-dependent increase in peak inspiration flow and peak expiration flow was present at 4-hour post-GD exposure that was reduced at 24 hours. Time of inspiration and expiration were decreased in all doses of GD exposure at 4 and 24 hours, with significant inhibition at 841 mg/m(3). End-expiratory pause (EEP) increased at 280 and 561 mg/m(3), but decreased in animals exposed 841 mg/m(3) at 24 hours postexposure. Pseudo-lung resistance (Penh) and pause followed similar patterns and increased at 4 hours, but decreased at 24 hours postexposure to 841 mg/m(3) of GD compared to control. These studies indicate GD exposure induces dose-dependent changes in pulmonary function that are significant at 841 mg/m(3) at 4 hours and remains 24 hours postexposure. Furthermore, at 4 hours, GD induces bronchoconstriction possibly due to copious airway secretion and ongoing lung injury in addition to cholinergic effects, while at 24 hours GD induces bronchodilation a possible consequence of initial compensatory mechanisms.

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