A new subset of CD103+CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in the small intestine expresses TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and induces Th1 response and CTL activity

Kosuke Fujimoto, Thangaraj Karuppuchamy, Naoki Takemura, Masaki Shimohigoshi, Tomohisa Machida, Yasunari Haseda, Taiki Aoshi, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Satoshi Uematsu
Journal of Immunology 2011 June 1, 186 (11): 6287-95
CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are the major conventional DC population in the intestinal lamina propria (LP). Our previous report showed that a small number of cells in the LP could be classified into four subsets based on the difference in CD11c/CD11b expression patterns: CD11c(hi)CD11b(lo) DCs, CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) DCs, CD11c(int)CD11b(int) macrophages, and CD11c(int)CD11b(hi) eosinophils. The CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) DCs, which are CD103(+), specifically express TLR5 and induce the differentiation of naive B cells into IgA(+) plasma cells. These DCs also mediate the differentiation of Ag-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in response to flagellin. We found that small intestine CD103(+) DCs of the LP (LPDCs) could be divided into a small subset of CD8α(+) cells and a larger subset of CD8α(-) cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that CD103(+)CD8α(+) and CD103(+)CD8α(-) LPDCs were equivalent to CD11c(hi)CD11b(lo) and CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) subsets, respectively. We analyzed a novel subset of CD8α(+) LPDCs to elucidate their immunological function. CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs expressed TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and produced IL-6 and IL-12p40, but not TNF-α, IL-10, or IL-23, following TLR ligand stimulation. CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs did not express the gene encoding retinoic acid-converting enzyme Raldh2 and were not involved in T cell-independent IgA synthesis or Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell induction. Furthermore, CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs induced Ag-specific IgG in serum, a Th1 response, and CTL activity in vivo. Accordingly, CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs exhibit a different function from CD103(+)CD8α(-) LPDCs in active immunity. This is the first analysis, to our knowledge, of CD8α(+) DCs in the LP of the small intestine.

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